Scope-based carbon footprint analysis of US residential and commercial buildings: An input-output hybrid life cycle assessment approach
Abbreviated Journal Title
Life cycle assessment; Economic input-output analysis; Scope-based; carbon footprint; US buildings; SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT; ENERGY; EMISSIONS; INVENTORIES; PERFORMANCE; CONSUMPTION; SELECTION; SYSTEM; SECTOR; IMPACT; Construction & Building Technology; Engineering, Environmental; Engineering, Civil
Analyzing building related carbon emissions remains as one of the most increasing interests in sustainability research. While majority of carbon footprint studies addressing buildings differ in system boundaries, scopes, GHGs and methodology selected, the increasing number of carbon footprint reporting in response to legal and business demand paved the way for worldwide acceptance and adoption of the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) set by the World Resources Institute (WRI) and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). Current research is an important attempt to quantify the carbon footprint of the U.S. residential and commercial buildings in accordance with carbon accounting standards and Scopes set by WRI, in which all possible indirect emissions are also considered. Emissions through the construction, use, and disposal phases were calculated for the benchmark year 2002 by using a comprehensive hybrid economic input-output life cycle analysis. The results indicate that emissions from direct purchases of electricity (Scope 2) with 48% have the highest carbon footprint in the U.S. buildings. Indirect emissions (Scope 3) with 32% are greater than direct emissions (Scope 1) with 20.4%. Commuting is the most influential activity among the Scope 3 emissions with more than 10% of the carbon footprint of the U.S. buildings overall. Construction supply chain is another important contributor to the U.S. building's carbon footprint with 6% share. Use phase emissions are found to be the highest with 91% of the total emissions through all of the life cycle phases of the U.S. buildings. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Building and Environment
"Scope-based carbon footprint analysis of US residential and commercial buildings: An input-output hybrid life cycle assessment approach" (2014). Faculty Bibliography 2010s. 5907.