Abbreviated Journal Title
WAVE-GUIDE; LITHIUM-NIOBATE; DIRECTIONAL COUPLER; LIGHT GENERATION; DELTA-BETA; ENTANGLEMENT; PERFORMANCE; COMPUTATION; WAVEGUIDES; CONVERSION; Optics
Lithium niobate photonic circuits have the salutary property of permitting the generation, transmission, and processing of photons to be accommodated on a single chip. Compact photonic circuits such as these, with multiple components integrated on a single chip, are crucial for efficiently implementing quantum information processing schemes. We present a set of basic transformations that are useful for manipulating modal qubits in Ti:LiNbO3 photonic quantum circuits. These include the mode analyzer, a device that separates the even and odd components of a state into two separate spatial paths; the mode rotator, which rotates the state by an angle in mode space; and modal Pauli spin operators that effect related operations. We also describe the design of a deterministic, two-qubit, single-photon, CNOT gate, a key element in certain sets of universal quantum logic gates. It is implemented as a Ti: LiNbO3 photonic quantum circuit in which the polarization and mode number of a single photon serve as the control and target qubits, respectively. It is shown that the effects of dispersion in the CNOT circuit can be mitigated by augmenting it with an additional path. The performance of all of these components are confirmed by numerical simulations. The implementation of these transformations relies on selective and controllable power coupling among single-and two-mode waveguides, as well as the polarization sensitivity of the Pockels coefficients in LiNbO3.
Saleh, Mohammed F.; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; and Teich, Malvin Carl, "Modal and polarization qubits in Ti:LiNbO3 photonic circuits for a universal quantum logic gate" (2010). Faculty Bibliography 2010s. 731.