Model for Quantifying the Impact of Change Orders on Project Cost for US Roadwork Construction
Abbreviated Journal Title
J. Constr. Eng. Manage.-ASCE
Change orders; Claims; Multiple regression; Heavy construction; LABOR EFFICIENCY; PRODUCTIVITY; MANAGEMENT; Construction & Building Technology; Engineering, Industrial; Engineering, Civil
Change orders are very common in almost every construction project nowadays, often resulting in increases of 5-10% in the contract price. Understanding the consequences of such trends, several studies have attempted to quantify the impact of change orders on the project cost. Most of the studies aimed at the quantification of the change orders were sponsored by contractors' organizations, where statistical models used to quantify the impact of the change orders on the project cost were based on data supplied by the contractors; a situation that can lead to owner-contractor disagreements related to the quantification method used. In addition, most of the studies tackled commercial and electromechanical work, and very rare studies tackled the field of heavy construction; a field that suffers from change orders because of errors and omissions, scope of work changes, or changes because of unforeseen conditions. This study addresses the need for a statistical model to quantify the increase of the contract price due to change orders in heavy construction projects in Florida. The model is based on data collected from 16 Florida DOT projects with contract values that ranged between $10-$25 million, and that encountered an increase in the contract price from 0.01 to 15%. Eleven variables were analyzed to test their impact on the cost of the change orders. The study concluded that most significant variables that impact the value of the change order, which are (1) the timing of the change order and (2) when the reason for issuing the change order is unforeseen conditions. Two regression models are developed and validated as follows: (1) a model to quantify the percentage increase in the contract price due to the change orders that increase the contract price from 0.01 to 5% and (2) a model to quantify the percentage increase in the contract price due to the change orders that increase the contract price from 5 to 15%. Those models will provide the owner with a retrospective or forward pricing of the change orders, and hence, allow the owner to estimate and utilize contingency amounts.
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management-Asce
"Model for Quantifying the Impact of Change Orders on Project Cost for US Roadwork Construction" (2010). Faculty Bibliography 2010s. 764.