electrical stimulation; pre-exercise; during exercise; post-exercise; optimal timing; knee injuries


This paper investigates the importance of electrical stimulation (E-Stim) treatment pre- exercise, during exercise, and post-exercise on knee pain management and exercise performance on individuals with knee injuries. Common problems from which individuals experience pain and injuries are arthritis, ACL tears, and osteoarthritis. One therapeutic approach to address the pain has been electrical stimulation. This is a non-invasive treatment that introduces electrical currents into the injured tissue or muscle. However, there are several modalities of electrical stimulation treatment that include Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS), Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES), and Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation (PENS). These treatments have the same goal: to provide a non-invasive method to stimulate the muscles and nerves to aid the healing process.

Throughout this research, the populations targeted were females and males with age ranging from adolescents to older adults. The subjects were 15 – 75 years of age and had experienced knee injuries. They included athletes, older adults with osteoarthritis, and those who required arthroplasty. Between January 2023 and April 2024, the review of literature was conducted using UCF Libraries, PubMed, (MedLine), and SPORTDiscus (EBSCOhost). Keywords used included “TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation) *”, “NMES (Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation) *”, “osteoarthritis (OA)*”, Electrical Stimulation (E- Stim) *”, “knee injuries*”, “pain management*”, “before exercise*”, “after exercise*” and “during exercise*”. The results from these studies suggested that the application of e-stim was favored either during or after exercise.

Thesis Completion Year


Thesis Completion Semester


Thesis Chair

Valdes, Anna


College of Health Professions and Sciences



Thesis Discipline

Physical Therapy



Access Status

Campus Access

Length of Campus Access

1 year

Campus Location

Orlando (Main) Campus

Available for download on Thursday, May 01, 2025



Rights Statement

In Copyright