Arete, Sport and Society, American Sport History
The first time that I remember the issue of gender and sport being raised was sometime in the 1960s when charges surfaced at the Olympics concerning the East German women’s track and field team. Their success led some in the west, especially the Americans, to charge that some female athletes from East Germany and the Soviet Union were, in fact, males. For the most part, I dismissed these claims as the complaints of bad losers. Others treated the charges more seriously, and sex tests came to the European Games in 1966 and the Olympic Games in 1968.
Sport and Society for Arete
College of Arts and Humanities
Crepeau, Richard C., "The Trans Issue" (2021). On Sport and Society. 863.