Title

DNA damage, homology-directed repair, and DNA methylation

Authors

Authors

C. Cuozzo; A. Porcellini; T. Angrisano; A. Morano; B. Lee; A. Di Pardo; S. Messina; R. Iuliano; A. Fusco; M. R. Santillo; M. T. Muller; L. Chiariotti; M. E. Gottesman;E. V. Avvedimento

Comments

Authors: contact us about adding a copy of your work at STARS@ucf.edu

Abbreviated Journal Title

PLoS Genet.

Keywords

STRAND BREAK REPAIR; MAMMALIAN-CELLS; DE-NOVO; METHYLTRANSFERASE GENE; RECOMBINATION; CHROMATIN; MUTATION; HYPOMETHYLATION; MAINTENANCE; INSTABILITY; Genetics & Heredity

Abstract

To explore the link between DNA damage and gene silencing, we induced a DNA double-strand break in the genome of Hela or mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells using I-SceI restriction endonuclease. The I-SceI site lies within one copy of two inactivated tandem repeated green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes (DR-GFP). A total of 2%-4% of the cells generated a functional GFP by homology-directed repair (HR) and gene conversion. However, similar to 50% of these recombinants expressed GFP poorly. Silencing was rapid and associated with HR and DNA methylation of the recombinant gene, since it was prevented in Hela cells by 5-aza-2 '-deoxycytidine. ES cells deficient in DNA methyl transferase 1 yielded as many recombinants as wild-type cells, but most of these recombinants expressed GFP robustly. Half of the HR DNA molecules were de novo methylated, principally downstream to the double-strand break, and half were undermethylated relative to the uncut DNA. Methylation of the repaired gene was independent of the methylation status of the converting template. The methylation pattern of recombinant molecules derived from pools of cells carrying DR-GFP at different loci, or from an individual clone carrying DR-GFP at a single locus, was comparable. ClustalW analysis of the sequenced GFP molecules in Hela and ES cells distinguished recombinant and nonrecombinant DNA solely on the basis of their methylation profile and indicated that HR superimposed novel methylation profiles on top of the old patterns. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA analysis revealed that DNA methyl transferase 1 was bound specifically to HR GFP DNA and that methylation of the repaired segment contributed to the silencing of GFP expression. Taken together, our data support a mechanistic link between HR and DNA methylation and suggest that DNA methylation in eukaryotes marks homologous recombined segments.

Journal Title

Plos Genetics

Volume

3

Issue/Number

7

Publication Date

1-1-2007

Document Type

Article

Language

English

First Page

1144

Last Page

1162

WOS Identifier

WOS:000248350000003

ISSN

1553-7390

Share

COinS