Nanoparticle agglomeration in an evaporating levitated droplet for different acoustic amplitudes
Abbreviated Journal Title
J. Appl. Phys.
BOILING HEAT-TRANSFER; Physics, Applied
Radiatively heated levitated functional droplets with nanosilica suspensions exhibit three distinct stages namely pure evaporation, agglomeration, and finally structure formation. The temporal history of the droplet surface temperature shows two inflection points. One inflection point corresponds to a local maximum and demarcates the end of transient heating of the droplet and domination of vaporization. The second inflection point is a local minimum and indicates slowing down of the evaporation rate due to surface accumulation of nanoparticles. Morphology and final precipitation structures of levitated droplets are due to competing mechanisms of particle agglomeration, evaporation, and shape deformation. In this work, we provide a detailed analysis for each process and propose two important timescales for evaporation and agglomeration that determine the final diameter of the structure formed. It is seen that both agglomeration and evaporation timescales are similar functions of acoustic amplitude (sound pressure level), droplet size, viscosity, and density. However, we show that while the agglomeration timescale decreases with initial particle concentration, the evaporation timescale shows the opposite trend. The final normalized diameter can be shown to be dependent solely on the ratio of agglomeration to evaporation timescales for all concentrations and acoustic amplitudes. The structures also exhibit various aspect ratios (bowls, rings, spheroids) which depend on the ratio of the deformation timescale (t(def)) and the agglomeration timescale (t(g)). For t(def) < t(g), a sharp peak in aspect ratio is seen at low concentrations of nanosilica which separates high aspect ratio structures like rings from the low aspect ratio structures like bowls and spheroids. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4775791]
Journal of Applied Physics
"Nanoparticle agglomeration in an evaporating levitated droplet for different acoustic amplitudes" (2013). Faculty Bibliography 2010s. 4759.