Festival stakeholders; Stakeholder differentiation; Stakeholder identification; Stakeholder theory
This article sets out to identify, differentiate, and categorize festival stakeholders by means of a multidimensional approach. Festivals are coproduced by a collection of stakeholders, and festival organizers facilitate the festival outcomes by interpreting stakeholders' contributions, aims, and concerns. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical framework was developed that illustrates how previous studies have typically identified and differentiated festival stakeholders by listing them or by means of a one-dimensional approach. For this study, an online survey was developed and administered to festival organizers in the US, testing the possibility of identifying, differentiating, and grouping festival stakeholders from a multidimensional approach. Based on the study results, festival stakeholders have been identified, differentiated, and categorized into internal and external stakeholders, eight universal groups, and a further 45 unique subgroups. Some stakeholders are universal in terms of most festivals, while other stakeholders will be unique—this depends on the festival itself. This study challenges the traditional hierarchical view that often marginalizes or at times ignores some stakeholders. It advocates for a wider and more consultative perspective where the sustainability of the festival is ensured as it complements the interest and contribution of the wider and often marginalized stakeholder groups.
Van Niekerk, M & Getz, D. (2015). The identification and differentiation of festival stakeholders: A new perspective. Event Management, 20(3), 419-431.
Number of Pages
Rosen College of Hospitality Management
Van Niekerk, Mathilda and Getz, Donald, "The identification and differentiation of festival stakeholders: A new perspective" (2016). Rosen Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works. 529.