Environmentally friendly approaches to genetic engineering
Abbreviated Journal Title
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.-Plant
herbicide/insect/antibiotic resistance; gene pollution and containments; Bt-resistance management; biodegradable plastics; BACILLUS-THURINGIENSIS TOXINS; POLYMER GENE; INSECTICIDAL PROTEIN; HELIOTHIS-VIRESCENS; BIOLISTIC DELIVERY; TRANSGENIC PLANTS; ESCHERICHIA-COLI; POLLEN DISPERSAL; TOBACCO CELLS; FOREIGN DNA; Plant Sciences; Cell Biology; Developmental Biology
Several environmental problems related to plant genetic engineering may prohibit advancement of this technology and prevent realization of its full potential. One such common concern is the demonstrated escape of foreign genes through other crops or toxicity of transgenic pollen to nontarget insects. The high rates of gene flow from crops to wild relatives (as high as 38% in sunflower and 50% in strawberries) are certainly a serious concern. Maternal inheritance of the herbicide resistance gene via chloroplast genetic engineering has been shown to be a practical solution to these problems. Another common concern is the suboptimal production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal protein or reliance on a single (or similar) B.t. protein in commercial transgenic crops, resulting in B.t. resistance among target pests. Clearly, different insecticidal proteins should be produced in lethal quantities to decrease the development of resistance. Such hyperex-pression of a novel B.t. protein in chloroplasts has resulted in 100% mortality of insects that are up to 40 000-fold resistant to other B.t. proteins. Yet another concern is the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in transgenic plants that could inactivate oral doses of the antibiotic or be transferred to pathogenic microbes in the GI tract or in soil, rendering them resistant to treatment with such antibiotics. Cotransformation and elimination of antibiotic resistant genes from transgenic plants using transposable elements via bleeding are promising new approaches. Genetic engineering efforts have also addressed vet another concern, i.e., the accumulation and persistence of plastics in our environment by production of biodegradable plastics. Recent approaches and accomplishments in addressing these environmental concerns via chloroplast genetic engineering ale discussed in this review.
In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant
"Environmentally friendly approaches to genetic engineering" (1999). Faculty Bibliography 1990s. 2593.