#### Title

Universality for the Focusing Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation at the Gradient Catastrophe Point: Rational Breathers and Poles of the Tritronquee Solution to Painleve I

#### Abbreviated Journal Title

Commun. Pure Appl. Math.

#### Keywords

ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL-EQUATIONS; SMALL DISPERSION LIMIT; MONODROMY; PRESERVING DEFORMATION; KORTEWEG-DEVRIES EQUATION; RIEMANN-HILBERT; APPROACH; DOUBLE SCALING LIMIT; RANDOM-MATRIX THEORY; SEMICLASSICAL; LIMIT; CRITICAL-BEHAVIOR; COEFFICIENTS; Mathematics, Applied; Mathematics

#### Abstract

The semiclassical (zero-dispersion) limit of solutions $q=q(x,t,\epsilon)$ to the one-dimensional focusing nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS) is studied in a scaling neighborhood D of a point of gradient catastrophe ($x_0,t_0$). We consider a class of solutions, specified in the text, that decay as $|x| \rightarrow \infty$. The neighborhood D contains the region of modulated plane wave (with rapid phase oscillations), as well as the region of fast-amplitude oscillations (spikes). In this paper we establish the following universal behaviors of the NLS solutions q near the point of gradient catastrophe: (i) each spike has height $3|q{_0}(x_0,t_0)|$ and uniform shape of the rational breather solution to the NLS, scaled to the size ${\cal O}(\epsilon)$; (ii) the location of the spikes is determined by the poles of the tritronquee solution of the Painleve I (P1) equation through an explicit map between D and a region of the Painleve independent variable; (iii) if $(x,t)\in D$ but lies away from the spikes, the asymptotics of the NLS solution $q(x,t, \epsilon)$ is given by the plane wave approximation $q_0(x,t, \epsilon)$, with the correction term being expressed in terms of the tritronquee solution of P1. The relation with the conjecture of Dubrovin, Grava, and Klein about the behavior of solutions to the focusing NLS near a point of gradient catastrophe is discussed. We conjecture that the P1 hierarchy occurs at higher degenerate catastrophe points and that the amplitudes of the spikes are odd multiples of the amplitude at the corresponding catastrophe point. Our technique is based on the nonlinear steepest-descent method for matrix Riemann-Hilbert problems and discrete Schlesinger isomonodromic transformations. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

#### Journal Title

Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics

#### Volume

66

#### Issue/Number

5

#### Publication Date

1-1-2013

#### Document Type

Article

#### DOI Link

#### Language

English

#### First Page

678

#### Last Page

752

#### WOS Identifier

#### ISSN

0010-3640

#### Recommended Citation

"Universality for the Focusing Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation at the Gradient Catastrophe Point: Rational Breathers and Poles of the Tritronquee Solution to Painleve I" (2013). *Faculty Bibliography 2010s*. 3702.

https://stars.library.ucf.edu/facultybib2010/3702

## Comments

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