A decade before the United States obtained possession of the whole of Florida the Indians had learned to fear Americans. Three times the men of the new nation to the north had invaded the peninsula; two of these invasions had brought ruin to the redmen. The first invasion-during the “Patriot War” of 1811-1813 - had initiated the disintegration of the towns and the agriculture of the Indians, east of the Suwannee River. The second - Andrew Jackson’s campaign in 1818 - had wreaked the same havoc upon those west of the Suwannee. The Florida Indians were never the same after these two catastrophes; perceptive white men testified to this fact.
Mahon, John K.
"The Treaty of Moultrie Creek, 1823,"
Florida Historical Quarterly: Vol. 40:
4, Article 4.
Available at: https://stars.library.ucf.edu/fhq/vol40/iss4/4