Recent scholarship has put the Second Seminole War in its proper place as one of the most dramatic episodes in the period of Indian removal. The war was the longest, most expensive and most exhausting Indian conflict of the era. Hostilities lasted from 1835 to 1842, and cost an estimated $40,000,000 while over 1,400 regular army troops and an indeterminable number of militiamen, civilians, and Indians lost their lives in the swamps and wilderness of Florida. Guerrilla tactics, atrocities, almost continual negotiation, generally undistinguished military activity, frequent change of command, and conflict between civilian and military authorities characterized the struggle.
Adams, George R.
"Caloosahatchee Massacre: Its Significance in the Second Seminole War,"
Florida Historical Quarterly: Vol. 48:
4, Article 4.
Available at: https://stars.library.ucf.edu/fhq/vol48/iss4/4