When Miami, Florida, was incorporated in 1896, most white residents mirrored the prevailing attitude toward blacks. Negroes, they assumed, were inferior people who represented a potential threat to the white community. This attitude resulted in the consignment of blacks to cramped quarters with inadequate municipal services, creation of a dual system of justice, and semi-official tolerance of white terrorism. The symbol and guardian of this order was the police.
George, Paul S.
"Policing Miami's Black Community, 1896-1930,"
Florida Historical Quarterly: Vol. 57
, Article 5.
Available at: https://stars.library.ucf.edu/fhq/vol57/iss4/5