Brian R. Rucker


Although Andrew Jackson’s forays into Spanish West Florida in 1814 and 1818 dispersed several hostile bands of Creek Indians, scattered parties remained in isolated forests and swamps. When Florida was transferred to the United States in 1821, settlers moving into the new territory soon were confronted with the presence of these natives. The majority were located in the central portion of the territory, but sizable bands lived in northwest Florida. The Treaty of Moultrie Creek, signed in 1823, provided for the settlement of approximately 800 friendly Creeks on reservation lands along the Apalachicola River. Smaller bands also lived along the shores of St. Andrew’s, Choctawhatchee, Blackwater, and Escambia bays. Indians and half-bloods often visited Pensacola. They came into the area to hunt and fish, to find pasture for their cattle, and to obtain supplies in the town.