The oppression of southern blacks in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century came to be known as the age of Jim Crow. Freedoms wrung from lhe battlefields of the Civil War, and expanded during Reconstruction, were stripped away with oppressive measures designed to assert while supremacy. The right of suffrage was quashed with a vengeance. Black men and some black women who had voted during Rcconstruction, and had even held public office, were divested of this right by acts that ranged from stark intimidation and violence to implementation of exclusive primaries, literacy tests, and poll taxes.
"Colorless Primaries: Tampa's White Municipal Party,"
Florida Historical Quarterly: Vol. 79:
3, Article 5.
Available at: https://stars.library.ucf.edu/fhq/vol79/iss3/5