Jason B. Palmer


In the past, historians have been quick to praise the remarkable hardships endured by Spanish soldiers and colonists in the construction of the Castillo de San Marcos.1 Their pay, food, and other supplies were siphoned off to help complete the construction. But seemingly lost in discussions of deprivation and hardship are the Native Americans who lived in the Spanish colony of La Florida. Apalachees, Timucuans, and Guales toiled for over twenty-four years under grueling condition to construct the first European-style stone fortress on North America's east coast.