Before the 1980s, many historians thought that working-class African Americans were victims of racism and consequently played passive roles in history. With the emergence of the new social history, scholars of African American and urban history reexamined previous notions of black culture. They came forward with sources and interpretations suggesting that working-class blacks played a major role in shaping race relations in urban America.
"Violence, Racial Etiquette, and African American Working-Class Infrapolitics in Jacksonville during World War I,"
Florida Historical Quarterly: Vol. 82:
2, Article 4.
Available at: https://stars.library.ucf.edu/fhq/vol82/iss2/4