Secondary Author(s)

Parker, Danny, Colon, Carlos; Vieira, Robin

Report Number




Heat Pumps; Water Heating; Peak Demand


The University of Central Florida's FSEC Energy Research Center (FSEC) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting laboratory electrical load shifting experiments using the CTA-2045-A standard to demonstrate the viability of grid-connected heat pump water heaters (HPWH), compared to electric resistance water heaters (ERWH), in providing load shifting in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). The investigation applied different CTA-2045 shed and critical peak (CP) control command designs under two different water draw profiles. The highly-controlled laboratory experiments were conducted on four HPWHs and one ERWH from December 2020 through February 2021.

The research aimed to evaluate the load shifting potential of grid-connected HPWHs in a high-impact region. A secondary objective was to evaluate energy efficiency implications of HPWHs compared with ERWHs that comprise greater than 73% of water heaters in the Southeastern U.S. (DOE/EIA, 2015).

Date Published


Local Subjects

Heat Pumps; Buildings - Peak Demand; Water Heating


FSEC Energy Research Center® Collection



Rights Statement

In Copyright