Scheduling and Cooperative Control of Electric Vehicles' Charging at Highway Service Stations




Electric Vehicles


This is a re-print version of a publication for the 53rd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Los Angeles, California, USA, December 15-17, 2014Due to their limited ranges, electric vehicles (EVs)need to be periodically charged during their long-distancetravels on a highway. Compared to the fossil-fuel poweredvehicles, the charging of a single EV takes much more time(up to 30 mins versus 2 mins). As the number of EVs onhighways increases, adequate charging infrastructure needs tobe put in place. Nonetheless waiting times for EVs to getcharged at service stations could still vary significantly unless anappropriate scheduling coordination is in place and individualEVs make correct decisions about their choice of charginglocations. This paper attempts to address both the system-levelscheduling problem and the individual control problem, whilerequiring only distributed information about EVs and theircharging at service stations along a highway. Specifically, wefirst develop a higher-level distributed scheduling algorithm tooptimize the operation of the overall charging network. Thescheduling algorithm uses only local information of traffic flowsmeasured at the neighboring service stations (nodes), and itaims at adjusting the percentage of the EVs to be chargedat individual stations so that all the charging resources alongthe highway are well (uniformly) utilized and the total waitingtime is minimized. Then, a lower level cooperative control law isdesigned for individual EVs to decide whether or not it shouldcharge its battery when approaching a specific service station bymeeting the published scheduling level while taking into accountits own battery constraint. Analytical designs are presented andtheir performance improvement is illustrated using simulation.

Date Published



Electric Vehicles

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