Secondary Author(s)

McIlvaine, Janet; Chandra, Subrato; Beal, David; Moyer, Neil

Report Number




HVAC; Blower Door; Buildings; Ducts; Manufactured Houses


In an on-going collaboration over the last ten years, researchers have worked with the manufactured housing industry offering building science advice and conducting diagnostic testing (Chandra et al 2002). This partnership resulted in the first two HUD code ENERGY STAR homes in 1997 and the development of standardized, in-plant Duct Blaster testing in 2001. One manufacturer is currently testing duct leakage on every home in 12 factories, representing over 8,000 homes per year.

In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced the ENERGY STAR label for manufactured homes. Guidelines for this program focus on certification of the HUD-code plant and award the ENERGY STAR label to any homes manufactured to prescriptive design requirements. The primary hurdle to certification is consistent production of tight duct systems. Other important aspects of the program include verification of prescriptive design packages and energy related site installation details.

An outline of the certification process at 10 plants in six states is presented, including Blower Door and Duct Blaster test results from over 40 homes. Duct test data taken by researchers from site-installed homes is compared with corresponding, in-plant test data. Photos, specifications and cost data are used to illustrate certification with an emphasis on achieving targeted duct leakage. Duct system design and installation details are also presented along with in-plant testing protocols.

Date Published



Original Publication: Chasar, D., Moyer, N., McIlvaine, J., Beal D., and Chandra, S., "Energy Star Manufactured Homes: The Plant Certification Process," Proceedings of ACEEE 2004 Summer Study, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington DC, August 2004

Local Subjects

Buildings - Blower Door; Buildings - Ducts; Buildings - HVAC; Buildings - Manufactured Houses


FSEC Energy Research Center® Collection



Rights Statement

In Copyright