The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state of Hawaii mandated fossil fuel electric power displacement by imposing Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) that will reach 100% renewable electricity generation by 2045. With small, remote and isolated island electricity grids, utilities in Hawaii face unprecedented technical and economic challenges to meet these goals with exceedingly high levels of intermittent wind and PV power generation. To meet these RPS goals, EVs become increasingly important in helping to balance intermittent power generation by providing a controllable load, and potentially an energy storage medium as well. In this work, high fidelity grid modeling and analysis of EV energy use and emissions was conducted for the Island of Oahu with the focus on the number of vehicles, charging strategies, and wind and PV penetration levels at present and in the future. Comparisons were made for different vehicle types and fuel mixes. Additionally, the state of EV integration into Hawaii's electric power grid was assessed and reported, including current challenges.
Florida Solar Energy Center and Mckenzie, Katherine, "Electric Vehicle Energy Impacts" (2017). FSEC Energy Research Center®. 79.