Exploring Antecedents of Social Loafing in Students' Group Work: A Mixed-methods Approach


Group work; Higher education; Hospitality; Social loafing; Tourism; Undergraduate students


The purpose of this article is to explore and validate antecedents of social loafing behavior among undergraduate students. A mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative) study was conducted. In the first phase, the free-listing method was used to collect data from undergraduate students at a hospitality and tourism school in China, yielding 211 valid responses from 250 students with 409 items. Six factors were identified using the content analysis of those 409 items, including shared responsibility, apathy, time limitation, competency, fairness, and group conflict. In the second phase, 303 responses were collected for exploratory factor analysis. Results revealed a good consistency of factors between the qualitative study and the quantitative study. The hierarchical regressions analysis tested the effects of the factors on social loafing behavior. Study results show that students' competencies, emotional relationships, and collective identities are key determinants of social loafing behavior. Specific theoretical and practical implications are provided.

Publication Date


Original Citation

uo, Z., Marnburg, E., Øgaard, T., & Okumus, F. (2021). Exploring antecedents of social loafing in students’ group work: A mixed-methods approach. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education (Elsevier Science), 28, N.PAG. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2021.100314

Document Type




Source Title

Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education




Rosen College of Hospitality Management


Rosen College of Hospitality Management

This document is currently not available for download.