A Better Investment in Luxury Restaurants: Environmental or Non-Environmental Cues?


Mehrabian-Russell model, arousal, pleasure, motivational orientation, hedonism, restaurant enviornment, behavioral intention, luxury restaurant


The purposes of this study were (1) to examine the impact of environmental and non-environmental cues on patrons’ emotional responses and (2) to examine the influence of emotions on patrons’ behavioral intentions, as moderated by motivational orientation and hedonism. Based on a thorough literature review, 11 theoretical hypotheses were proposed and a structural model was developed. The model was then tested using data collected from 379 actual luxury restaurant patrons residing in the United States. According to the results of data analysis, it was revealed that both environmental and non-environmental cues induce patrons’ arousal in the luxury restaurant setting; however, environmental cues have a stronger impact on arousal than do non-environmental cues. More importantly, among the various environmental cues, ambient conditions were found to be the most powerful element that drives patrons’ arousal. Data analysis also revealed the positive effect of arousal on pleasure and the positive effect of pleasure on behavioral intentions. Thus, it can be interpreted that arousal is a required condition in inducing patrons’ pleasure. The moderating roles of motivational orientation and hedonism were also supported. Theoretical and practical implications based on the findings are discussed in the latter part of the study.

Publication Date


Original Citation

Hyun, S.H. & Kang, J. (2014). A better investment in luxury restaurants: Environmental or non-environmental cues. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 39, 57-70.

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Source Title

International Journal of Hospitality Management




Rosen College of Hospitality Management


Rosen College of Hospitality Management

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