A Visitor-Based Brand Equity Perspective: The Case of a Public Festival


brand image, festivals, brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand quality, visitor-based brand equity


Purpose– This paper aims to empirically examine how five different brand equity dimensions of a festival brand (i.e. awareness, image, quality, value and loyalty) are inter-related. Specifically, this study aims to examine the impact of brand awareness on perceived brand image, perceived brand quality and perceived value; the impact of perceived brand image on perceived brand quality and brand loyalty; and the impact of perceived brand quality on perceived value and brand loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach– The conceptual model was tested with an onsite sample of a public festival referred to as the VEISHEA (Veterinary Medicine, Engineering, Industrial Science, Home Economics and Agriculture) festival, which is located in a Midwestern college-town. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to reach the goals of the study.

Findings– The findings revealed that improving attendees’ awareness is a keystone in promoting brand quality perceptions, increasing perceived value and creating favorable brand image. Perceptions of quality on brand loyalty were stronger than any other effect, pointing out the need for superior quality. These findings confirmed that a public festival which does not require visitor admission fees can increase visitors by utilizing branding strategies, as has been done with other types of festivals.

Research limitations/implications– This research was conducted at a public festival. Further study should be conducted at other festivals/events. Analysis of antecedents such as advertising and promotions in the brand equity creation process will provide further important information.

Practical implications– This study provides guidance for practitioners to manage festival brands properly and develop strategies (e.g. communications and promotions) which reinforce the intangible asset of brand equity.

Originality/value– This is the first study that applies the brand equity concept to the setting of public festivals. This application to a new context contributes to the body of knowledge of brand equity theory.

Publication Date


Original Citation

Manthiou, K., Kang, J., & Schrier, T. (2014). A visitor-based brand equity perspective: The case of a public festival. Tourism Review, 69(4), 264-283.

Manthiou, K., Kang, J., & Schrier, T. (2014). A visitor-based brand equity perspective: The case of a public festival. Tourism Review. In press.

Number of Pages


Document Type




Source Title

Tourism Review






Rosen College of Hospitality Management


Rosen College of Hospitality Management

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