Open Educational Resources for the study of the Ancient Near East list compiled by Dr. Tiffany Earley-Spadoni with the assistance of Rachel Williams at the University of Central Florida.
This OER compilation is provided under a Creative Commons license: Attribution-ShareAlike CC BY-SA 4.0.
Description: The Harvard Museum of the ancient Near East has produced a sketchfab gallery of objects.
Assyrian Collection of the British Museum
Description: Virtual tour of the Assyrian collection at the British Museum.
Description: Visitors can explore a model of the 1st millennium BCE city of Babylon.
Constructing the Sacred (Saqqara)
Description: A diachronic study of visibility and ritual landscapes at the ancient Egyptian necropolis of Saqqara.
Description: CDLI database of Mesopotamian seals and tablets.
Preserving Egypt's Layered Past
Description: A collaboration with the American Research Center in Egypt, this project features educational videos and interactive 3D content.
Virtual Exhibitions at Penn Museum
Description: Allows you to search the collection within an interactive GIS.
Virtual Tours of Collections at the British Museum
Description: A collection of virtual resources from the British Museum. Available on Google Arts and Culture app (iOS and Android).
Description: Includes the famed Ishtar Gates/processional way. Available on Google Arts and Culture app (iOS and Android).
Virtual Tours of Turkish Museums
Description: Virtual/3D tours of various museum collections. Navigation is intuitive, and Google translate can be enabled for navigation in the Chrome browser.
AMGG: Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses
Offers information about the fifty most important Mesopotamian gods and goddesses and provides starting points for further research.
An Educator's Handbook for Teaching about the Ancient World
Description: Essays and classroom activities available freely as a PDF with a Creative Commons license.
Art of the Ancient Near East: A Resource for Educators
Description: Description and analysis of art in the ancient Near East by Met curators.
Description: This corpus of letters between the kings and their high officials, the largest known from antiquity, gives first-hand insight into the mechanisms of communication between the top levels of authority in an ancient empire.
Digital Egypt for Universities
The primary aim of the website is support for learning across different disciplines - including learners and teachers who may know nothing about, or even be interested in, Egypt.
First Empires: Power and Propaganda in the Ancient World
Description: This course traces the continuum of socio-political and cultural developments in the Near East that led, over the course of three millennia, from stateless societies to the emergence of Assyria as the first empire in history.
Knowledge and Power in the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Description: Educational pages on the apogee of the Neo-Assyrian empire in the 7th c. BCE.
Nimrud: Materialities of Assyrian Knowledge Production
A portal to all things related to the ancient Assyrian city of Nimrud (Kalhu/Calah), on Oracc and beyond. Explores how scientific and historical knowledge is made from archaeological objects.
Description: Accessible articles about the ancient Near East written by scholars and specialists in the field.
The Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
Combines essays and works of art in an interactive timeline.
The Northwest Palace at Nimrud
Virtual Tour of OI Collections
Description: Virtual exhibits related to topics such as the Book of the Dead and Hieroglypics.
Encyclopedias and Dictionaries (Scholarly)
CDA: A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian
Description: An online supplement for the classic abbreviated Akkadian dictionary.
Description: Dedicated to the study of Iranian civilization in the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Indian Subcontinent.
The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary
Description: A dictionary project that collects attestations of words to provide cultural and historical context for usage.
UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology
Description: The peer-reviewed articles of the UEE are written by leading scholars in disciplines related to Egyptology.
Description: List of digital archives containing images related to the study and exploration of the ANE.
Description: Collections related to Egypt and the Ancient Near East.
Berlin Vorderasiatisches Museum
Description: Virtual/3D tours of certain museum attractions, and multimedia content including blog posts/videos.
Description: ANE and Egyptian materials, highlights include Egyptian sarcophagi, the Balawat Gates, palace bas-reliefs from Nineveh etc.
Description: An important collection of Egyptian objects.
Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection, Berlin
Description: Specialized collection of Egyptian artifacts including the famed bust of Nefertiti and other artifacts from Amarna.
Description: Key collection of Egyptian artifacts, to be superceded by the Grand Egyptian Musuem. Currently reduced web presence.
Description: Important archaeological collections from Armenia.
Description: Collection related to the history of Israel.
Description: Large dedicated collection of Egyptian artifacts.
Description: ANE and Egyptian materials. Robust educational and public-facing materials available.
Description: Collection related to the history of Iraq.
Description: Collection of Jordanian antiquities.
Description: ANE collection includes Codex Hammurabi, Stele of the Vultures and Egyptian sarcophagi.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Description: Important ANE and Egyptian collections.
The OI at the University of Chicago
Description: Important collection and research related to the ANE.
Description: Important collection of ANE materials, including famed processional way and Ishtar Gate.
Description: ANE and Egyptian materials.
Description: Important collections of ancient Near Eastern and Egyptian objects.
University of Pennsylvania Museum of Art and Anthropology
Description: Collection includes artifacts and art objects from the Royal Tombs of Ur.
Description: A collection of texts and other educational resources related to the Achaemenid Persian Empire from the Bosphorus to the Indus river, from 550 to 330 B.C
Description: A growing collection of online resources for ANE educators.
AWOL: The Ancient World Online
The project features an influential blog on digital projects relevant to the ancient world and OER resource listings of open monographs and textbooks.
Electronic Publications Initiative of the OI
Description: More than 700 monographs freely available for download on topics such as archaeology, Assyriology, Demotic, Hittite etc.
Livius.org Articles on Ancient History
Description: OER include text translations and articles. See categories for Persia, Greater Iran, Babylonia etc. for relevant articles and content.
Open Access Ancient Language Textbooks (AWOL)
Resources include Akkadian, Aramaic, Biblical Hebrew, Demotic etc.
Description: Many educational resources from open publications to recipes.
Description: An interactive map featuring layers of Hittite monuments. Good for conveying scale and scope of the Hittite state.
Women in the Ancient Near East
Description: A textbook covering topics such as marriage, vocations, adornment and violence.
Description: Audio interviews with scholars of the ancient Near East.
Description: Multiple relevant episodes, e.g. Gilgamesh, Perspepolis, Babylon, Archaeology and Imperialism etc.
Description: Podcasts and other open resources about the archaeology of the ancient world.
Primary Sources/Text Translation Projects
ADsD: Astronomical Diaries Digital
Description: ADsD provides an online edition of the Babylonian Astronomical Diaries. The project is based on the editio princeps prepared by Abraham Sachs and Hermann Hunger, incorporating collations and corrections that were made after publication.
akklove: Akkadian Love Literature
Description: AkkLove presents all early Akkadian literary texts related to love and sex known to date. The project is based on Wasserman, Akkadian Love Literature of the Third and Second Millennium BCE, Harrassowitz, 2016, where commentary to the texts and an introduction to the corpus are found.
Description: Ancient Assyrian Texts with focus on the Hittite Empire. A range of resources are available (bibliographies, text translations, photo archives, and 3D images).
Description: Translations of the famed archive in Egypt which focuses upon international diplomacy.
Description: An important collection of more than 30,000 Old Babylonian texts. French site with English interface option.
ARIo: Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions online
Description: The project presents annotated and searchable editions of Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions written in Old Persian, Elamite, and Akkadian. The texts have been adapted, lemmatized, and translated into English.
ARMEP: Ancient Records of Middle Eastern Polities
Description: ARMEP, with its multi-project search engine, enables users to simultaneously search the translations, transliterations, and catalogues of multiple Oracc projects on which ancient records of Middle Eastern polities (especially those of the first millennium BC) are edited.
ARRIM Digital Archive: Digital Archive of the Annual Review of the Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia
Description: ARRIM Digital Archive makes all nine issues of “The Annual Review of the Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia" (1983-1991) freely available in searchable PDF files.
AsbP: Ashurbanipal Library Project
Description: The Ashurbanipal Library Project documents the most important collection of texts from the ancient Near East. Future versions of the project will include text editions of the tablets from the library.
BBTo: Babylonian Topographical Texts Online
Description: The most important cuneiform source for the topography of Babylon, which lists and explains the sacred names of the city, its temples, and its other important topographical features and whose purpose was to glorify Babylon as Babylonia's pre-eminent religious center.
BDTNS: Database of Neo-Sumerian Texts
Description: A searchable electronic corpus of Neo-Sumerian administrative cuneiform tablets dated to the 21st century B.C.
blms: Bilinguals in Late Mesopotamian Scholarship
Description: BLMS provides editions of bilingual narrative texts, hymns, proverbs, prayers, rituals, and incantations dating to the first millennium BCE.
CAMS: Corpus of Ancient Mesopotamian Scholarship
Description: Editions and translations of a wide range of Mesopotamian scholarly writings, contributed by many different people and projects.
CASPo: Corpus of Akkadian Shuila-Prayers online
Description: An on-going project that provides a digital resource for these important Akkadian prayers and lays the foundation for a comprehensive critical edition.
CCPo: Cuneiform Commentaries Project on ORACC
Description: Provides fully searchable, annotated editions of text commentaries written by Assyrian and Babylonian scholars between the eighth and second centuries BCE. The texts commented on include literary, magical, divinatory, medical, legal, and lexical works.
CDLI: The Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative
Description: The foundational online cataloging and archiving project for the cuneiform corpus, directed by Bob Englund at UCLA. The Oracc presentation is based directly on public CDLI data which is updated nightly.
CKST: Corpus of Kassite Sumerian Texts
Description: Editions of Sumerian Kassite texts: Royal Inscriptions, Literary, and Lexical texts.
CMAwRo: Corpus of Mesopotamian Anti-witchcraft Rituals
Description: CMAwRo presents online critical editions of Mesopotamian rituals and incantations against witchcraft.
CTIJ: Cuneiform Texts Mentioning Israelites, Judeans, and Other Related Groups
Description: Cuneiform texts and onomastic data pertaining to Israelites, Judeans, and related population groups during the Neo-Assyrian, Neo- and Late Babylonian, and Achaemenid Periods (744-330 BCE).
DCCLT: Digital Corpus of Cuneiform Lexical Texts
Description: Editions and translations of lexical texts (word lists and sign lists) from all periods of cuneiform writing.
DCCMT: Digital Corpus of Cuneiform Mathematical Texts
Description: Catalogue of around a thousand published cuneiform mathematical tablets, with several hundred transliterations and translations.
Description: The Ebla Digital Archives provide a digital edition of the Ebla texts, and other related research is available.
eCUT: Electronic Corpus of Urartian Texts
Description: The project presents fully annotated and searchable editions of numerous cuneiform sources from the Kingdom of Urartu, which are mainly written in the Urartian language.
ePSD2: electronic Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary
Description: Provides listings of over 12,000 Sumerian words, phrases and names, occurring in almost 100,000 distinct forms a total of over 2.27 million times in the corpus of texts indexed for the Dictionary. The corpus covers, directly or indirectly, about 100,000 of the 134,000+ known Sumerian texts.
eTact: Electronic Translations of Akkadian Cuneiform Texts
Description: Digital respository contains a handful of translations useful for teaching such as the Enuma Elish.
ETANA: Electronic Tools and Ancient Near East Archives
Description: ETANA is a multi-institutional collaborative project initiated in August 2000, as an electronic publishing project designed to enhance the study of the history and culture of the ancient Near East.
ETCSL: Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature
Description: Comprises a selection of nearly 400 literary compositions recorded on sources which come from ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) and date to the late third and early second millennia BCE.
ETCSRI: Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Royal Inscriptions
Description: An annotated, grammatically and morphologically analyzed, transliterated, trilingual (Sumerian-English-Hungarian), parallel corpus of all Sumerian royal inscriptions.
Description: The Open Access download of Andrew George's critical edition of the Epic of Gilgamesh.
GKAB: The Geography of Knowledge in Assyria and Babylonia: A Diachronic Analysis of Four Scholarly Libraries
Description: A study of how scholarship worked in the ancient world. Includes helpful educational content pages, text translations and a bibliography.
Glass: Corpus of Glass Technological Texts
Description: This project provides editions and translations for cuneiform technological recipes. The texts include Assyrian and Babylonian tablets that provide instructions for producing glass that imitates precious stones and procedures for processing perfumed oils.
HBTIN: Hellenistic Babylonia: Texts, Iconography, Names
Description: Cuneiform texts, iconography and onomastic data from Hellenistic Babylonia, primarily from Uruk.
HPM: Hethitologie Portal Mainz
Description: HPM has been continuously expanded within the framework of the academy project “Hethitische Forschungen” as well as through the contributions of numerous Hittitologists worldwide, who have made their own projects accessibly through platform of HPM.
ISSL: The Index to the Sumerian Secondary Literature
Description: Over 70,000 references to the Sumerian secondary literature which also indexes all of the transliterations of word writings in ePSD.
LaOCOST: Law and Order: Cuneiform Online Sustainable Tool
Description: This project illuminates how issues of law and gender were practiced in the ancient Near East, utilizing a digital corpus of legal and non-legal texts as its database.
Laws of Hammurabi, Martha T. Roth
Critical translation of the Laws of Hammurabi, c. 1750 BCE. Translation of the Codex Hammurabi (the Code of Hammurabi) by Martha Roth, the Chauncey S. Boucher Distinguished Professor in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
LoveLyrics: A corpus of 1st mill. love rituals involving Marduk, Zarpanitum and Ištar
Description: Edition of the corpus of 1st-millennium-BCE texts from Assyria and Babylonia with rituals and verbal ceremonies involving Marduk, Zarpanitu and Ištar of Babylon.
Machine Translation and Automated Analysis of Cuneiform Languages (MTAAC)
Description: The MTAAC project develops and applies new computerized methods to translate and analyze the contents of some 67,000 highly standardized administrative documents from southern Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq) from the 21st century BC.
OBMC: Old Babylonian Model Contracts
Description: Edition of the Corpus of Old Babylonian Model Contracts by Gabriella Spada.
OBTA: Old Babylonian Tabular Accounts
Description: A catalogue and corpus of Old Babylonian tabular accounts by Eleanor Robson at University College London.
Description: Provides a global registry of sign names, variants and readings for use by Oracc.
OIMEA: Official Inscriptions of the Middle East in Antiquity
Description: OIMEA, with its multi-project search engine, enables users to simultaneously search the translations, transliterations, and catalogues of multiple Oracc projects on which official inscriptions are edited.