Open Educational Resources for the study of the Ancient Near East list compiled by Dr. Tiffany Earley-Spadoni with the assistance of Rachel Williams at the University of Central Florida.

This OER compilation is provided under a Creative Commons license: Attribution-ShareAlike CC BY-SA 4.0

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Digital Archaeology

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3-D Models of Objects

Description: The Harvard Museum of the ancient Near East has produced a sketchfab gallery of objects.

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Assyrian Collection of the British Museum

Description: Virtual tour of the Assyrian collection at the British Museum.

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Babylon: a 3D Model

Description: Visitors can explore a model of the 1st millennium BCE city of Babylon.

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Constructing the Sacred (Saqqara)

Description: A diachronic study of visibility and ritual landscapes at the ancient Egyptian necropolis of Saqqara.

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History of the World in 100 Objects

Description: This public project aims to tell the story of the world using objects in the musuem as narrative hooks.

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Mesopotamian Seals

Description: CDLI database of Mesopotamian seals and tablets.

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My Virtual Armenia

Description: Mobile app (IOS and Android) that showcases 3D models of Armenia.

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Virtual Exhibitions at Penn Museum

Description: Allows you to search the collection within an interactive GIS.

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Virtual Tours of Collections at the British Museum

Description: A collection of virtual resources from the British Museum. Available on Google Arts and Culture app (iOS and Android).

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Virtual Tours of the Pergamon

Description: Includes the famed Ishtar Gates/processional way. Available on Google Arts and Culture app (iOS and Android).

Educational Pages/Modules

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AMGG: Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses

Description:

Offers information about the fifty most important Mesopotamian gods and goddesses and provides starting points for further research.

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ANE: Art-Historical Modules by Marian Feldman, Megan Lewis and Avary Taylor

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An Educator's Handbook for Teaching about the Ancient World

Description: Essays and classroom activities available freely as a PDF with a Creative Commons license.

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Art of the Ancient Near East: A Resource for Educators

Description: Description and analysis of art in the ancient Near East by Met curators.

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Assyrian Empire Builders

Description: This corpus of letters between the kings and their high officials, the largest known from antiquity, gives first-hand insight into the mechanisms of communication between the top levels of authority in an ancient empire.

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Digital Egypt for Universities

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The primary aim of the website is support for learning across different disciplines - including learners and teachers who may know nothing about, or even be interested in, Egypt.

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First Empires: Power and Propaganda in the Ancient World

Description: This course traces the continuum of socio-political and cultural developments in the Near East that led, over the course of three millennia, from stateless societies to the emergence of Assyria as the first empire in history.

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Knowledge and Power in the Neo-Assyrian Empire

Description: Educational pages on the apogee of the Neo-Assyrian empire in the 7th c. BCE.

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Nimrud: Materialities of Assyrian Knowledge Production

Description:

A portal to all things related to the ancient Assyrian city of Nimrud (Kalhu/Calah), on Oracc and beyond. Explores how scientific and historical knowledge is made from archaeological objects.

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The Ancient Near East Today

Description: Accessible articles about the ancient Near East written by scholars and specialists in the field.

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The Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

Description:

Combines essays and works of art in an interactive timeline.

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The Northwest Palace at Nimrud

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Virtual Tour of OI Collections

Description: Virtual exhibits related to topics such as the Book of the Dead and Hieroglypics.

Encyclopedias (Scholarly)

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Encyclopaedia Iranica

Description: Dedicated to the study of Iranian civilization in the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Indian Subcontinent.

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UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology

Description: The peer-reviewed articles of the UEE are written by leading scholars in disciplines related to Egyptology.

Images

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ASOR Image Resources

Description: List of digital archives containing images related to the study and exploration of the ANE.

Objects/Collections

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Ashmolean Museum, Oxford

Description: Collections related to Egypt and the Ancient Near East.

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British Museum, London

Description: ANE and Egyptian materials, highlights include Egyptian sarcophagi, the Balawat Gates, palace bas-reliefs from Nineveh etc.

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Carlos Museum, Atlanta

Description: An important collection of Egyptian objects.

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Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection, Berlin

Description: Specialized collection of Egyptian artifacts including the famed bust of Nefertiti and other artifacts from Amarna.

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Egyptian Museum, Cairo

Description: Key collection of Egyptian artifacts, to be superceded by the Grand Egyptian Musuem. Currently reduced web presence.

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History Museum of Armenia

Description: Important archaeological collections from Armenia.

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Israel Museum, Jerusalem

Description: Collection related to the history of Israel.

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Museo Egizio, Torino

Description: Large dedicated collection of Egyptian artifacts.

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Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Description: ANE and Egyptian materials. Robust educational and public-facing materials available.

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The Iraq Museum, Baghdad

Description: Collection related to the history of Iraq.

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The Jordan Museum, Amman

Description: Collection of Jordanian antiquities.

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The Louvre, Paris

Description: ANE collection includes Codex Hammurabi, Stele of the Vultures and Egyptian sarcophagi.

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Description: Important ANE and Egyptian collections.

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The OI at the University of Chicago

Description: Important collection and research related to the ANE.

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The Pergamon, Berlin

Description: Important collection of ANE materials, including famed processional way and Ishtar Gate.

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The Vatican, Rome

Description: ANE and Egyptian materials.

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The Walters Art Museum

Description: Important collections of ancient Near Eastern and Egyptian objects.

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University of Pennsylvania Museum of Art and Anthropology

Description: Collection includes artifacts and art objects from the Royal Tombs of Ur.

OER Collections

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Achemenet

Description: A collection of texts and other educational resources related to the Achaemenid Persian Empire from the Bosphorus to the Indus river, from 550 to 330 B.C

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ASOR

Description: A growing collection of online resources for ANE educators.

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AWOL: The Ancient World Online

Description:

The project features an influential blog on digital projects relevant to the ancient world and OER resource listings of open monographs and textbooks.

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Egyptology Resources

Description: A list with links to more than hundreds of OER related to Egyptology.

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Electronic Publications Initiative of the OI

Description: More than 700 monographs freely available for download on topics such as archaeology, Assyriology, Demotic, Hittite etc.

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Open Access Ancient Language Textbooks (AWOL)

Description:

Resources include Akkadian, Aramaic, Biblical Hebrew, Demotic etc.

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Yale Babylonian Collection

Description: Many educational resources from open publications to recipes.

Other

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Women in the Ancient Near East

Description: A textbook covering topics such as marriage, vocations, adornment and violence.

Podcasts

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ASOR podcasts

Description: Audio interviews with scholars of the ancient Near East.

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In Our Time, BBC

Description: Multiple relevant episodes, e.g. Gilgamesh, Perspepolis, Babylon, Archaeology and Imperialism etc.

Primary Sources/Text Translation Projects

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ADsD: Astronomical Diaries Digital

Description: ADsD provides an online edition of the Babylonian Astronomical Diaries. The project is based on the editio princeps prepared by Abraham Sachs and Hermann Hunger, incorporating collations and corrections that were made after publication.

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akklove: Akkadian Love Literature

Description: AkkLove presents all early Akkadian literary texts related to love and sex known to date. The project is based on Wasserman, Akkadian Love Literature of the Third and Second Millennium BCE, Harrassowitz, 2016, where commentary to the texts and an introduction to the corpus are found.

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ARCHIBAB

Description: An important collection of more than 30,000 Old Babylonian texts. French site with English interface option.

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ARIo: Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions online

Description: The project presents annotated and searchable editions of Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions written in Old Persian, Elamite, and Akkadian. The texts have been adapted, lemmatized, and translated into English.

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ARMEP: Ancient Records of Middle Eastern Polities

Description: ARMEP, with its multi-project search engine, enables users to simultaneously search the translations, transliterations, and catalogues of multiple Oracc projects on which ancient records of Middle Eastern polities (especially those of the first millennium BC) are edited.

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ARRIM Digital Archive: Digital Archive of the Annual Review of the Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia

Description: ARRIM Digital Archive makes all nine issues of “The Annual Review of the Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia" (1983-1991) freely available in searchable PDF files.

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AsbP: Ashurbanipal Library Project

Description: The Ashurbanipal Library Project documents the most important collection of texts from the ancient Near East. Future versions of the project will include text editions of the tablets from the library.

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BBTo: Babylonian Topographical Texts Online

Description: The most important cuneiform source for the topography of Babylon, which lists and explains the sacred names of the city, its temples, and its other important topographical features and whose purpose was to glorify Babylon as Babylonia's pre-eminent religious center.

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BDTNS: Database of Neo-Sumerian Texts

Description: A searchable electronic corpus of Neo-Sumerian administrative cuneiform tablets dated to the 21st century B.C.

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blms: Bilinguals in Late Mesopotamian Scholarship

Description: BLMS provides editions of bilingual narrative texts, hymns, proverbs, prayers, rituals, and incantations dating to the first millennium BCE.

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CAMS: Corpus of Ancient Mesopotamian Scholarship

Description: Editions and translations of a wide range of Mesopotamian scholarly writings, contributed by many different people and projects.

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CASPo: Corpus of Akkadian Shuila-Prayers online

Description: An on-going project that provides a digital resource for these important Akkadian prayers and lays the foundation for a comprehensive critical edition.

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CCPo: Cuneiform Commentaries Project on ORACC

Description: Provides fully searchable, annotated editions of text commentaries written by Assyrian and Babylonian scholars between the eighth and second centuries BCE. The texts commented on include literary, magical, divinatory, medical, legal, and lexical works.

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CDLI: The Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative

Description: The foundational online cataloging and archiving project for the cuneiform corpus, directed by Bob Englund at UCLA. The Oracc presentation is based directly on public CDLI data which is updated nightly.

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CKST: Corpus of Kassite Sumerian Texts

Description: Editions of Sumerian Kassite texts: Royal Inscriptions, Literary, and Lexical texts.

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CMAwRo: Corpus of Mesopotamian Anti-witchcraft Rituals

Description: CMAwRo presents online critical editions of Mesopotamian rituals and incantations against witchcraft.

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Contrib: Contributions

Description: Data contributed to Oracc for reuse by others, normally under the CC BY-SA license.

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CTIJ: Cuneiform Texts Mentioning Israelites, Judeans, and Other Related Groups

Description: Cuneiform texts and onomastic data pertaining to Israelites, Judeans, and related population groups during the Neo-Assyrian, Neo- and Late Babylonian, and Achaemenid Periods (744-330 BCE).

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DCCLT: Digital Corpus of Cuneiform Lexical Texts

Description: Editions and translations of lexical texts (word lists and sign lists) from all periods of cuneiform writing.

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DCCMT: Digital Corpus of Cuneiform Mathematical Texts

Description: Catalogue of around a thousand published cuneiform mathematical tablets, with several hundred transliterations and translations.

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eCUT: Electronic Corpus of Urartian Texts

Description: The project presents fully annotated and searchable editions of numerous cuneiform sources from the Kingdom of Urartu, which are mainly written in the Urartian language.

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ePSD2: electronic Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary

Description: Provides listings of over 12,000 Sumerian words, phrases and names, occurring in almost 100,000 distinct forms a total of over 2.27 million times in the corpus of texts indexed for the Dictionary. The corpus covers, directly or indirectly, about 100,000 of the 134,000+ known Sumerian texts.

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ETANA: Electronic Tools and Ancient Near East Archives

Description: ETANA is a multi-institutional collaborative project initiated in August 2000, as an electronic publishing project designed to enhance the study of the history and culture of the ancient Near East.

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ETCSL: Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature

Description: Comprises a selection of nearly 400 literary compositions recorded on sources which come from ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) and date to the late third and early second millennia BCE.

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ETCSRI: Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Royal Inscriptions

Description: An annotated, grammatically and morphologically analyzed, transliterated, trilingual (Sumerian-English-Hungarian), parallel corpus of all Sumerian royal inscriptions.

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Gilgamesh

Description: The Open Access download of Andrew George's critical edition of the Epic of Gilgamesh.

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Glass: Corpus of Glass Technological Texts

Description: This project provides editions and translations for cuneiform technological recipes. The texts include Assyrian and Babylonian tablets that provide instructions for producing glass that imitates precious stones and procedures for processing perfumed oils.

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HBTIN: Hellenistic Babylonia: Texts, Iconography, Names

Description: Cuneiform texts, iconography and onomastic data from Hellenistic Babylonia, primarily from Uruk.

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HPM: Hethitologie Portal Mainz

Description: HPM has been continuously expanded within the framework of the academy project “Hethitische Forschungen” as well as through the contributions of numerous Hittitologists worldwide, who have made their own projects accessibly through platform of HPM.

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ISSL: The Index to the Sumerian Secondary Literature

Description: Over 70,000 references to the Sumerian secondary literature which also indexes all of the transliterations of word writings in ePSD.

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LaOCOST: Law and Order: Cuneiform Online Sustainable Tool

Description: This project illuminates how issues of law and gender were practiced in the ancient Near East, utilizing a digital corpus of legal and non-legal texts as its database.

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LoveLyrics: A corpus of 1st mill. love rituals involving Marduk, Zarpanitum and Ištar

Description: Edition of the corpus of 1st-millennium-BCE texts from Assyria and Babylonia with rituals and verbal ceremonies involving Marduk, Zarpanitu and Ištar of Babylon.

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Machine Translation and Automated Analysis of Cuneiform Languages (MTAAC)

Description: The MTAAC project develops and applies new computerized methods to translate and analyze the contents of some 67,000 highly standardized administrative documents from southern Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq) from the 21st century BC.

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Mesopotamian Royal Inscriptions

Description: Inscribed cuneiform artifacts catalogued by the CDLI number nearly 350,000 individual pieces.

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OBMC: Old Babylonian Model Contracts

Description: Edition of the Corpus of Old Babylonian Model Contracts by Gabriella Spada.

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OBTA: Old Babylonian Tabular Accounts

Description: A catalogue and corpus of Old Babylonian tabular accounts by Eleanor Robson at University College London.

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OGSL: Oracc Global Style List

Description: Provides a global registry of sign names, variants and readings for use by Oracc.

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OIMEA: Official Inscriptions of the Middle East in Antiquity

Description: OIMEA, with its multi-project search engine, enables users to simultaneously search the translations, transliterations, and catalogues of multiple Oracc projects on which official inscriptions are edited.

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Papyri.info

Description: Co-display of multiple digital papyrological resources in a scholarly web resource. Includes collections from Yale, Michigan, Berkeley, and other libraries; nearly 35,000 paypri in all, in Arabic, Coptic, Greek, Ancient Egyptian, and other languages.

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Persepolis Fortification Archive Project

Description: A collection of texts and objects discovered in Perspepolis.

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PNAo: Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire online

Description: Provides a collection of additions and corrections to the printed fascicles of The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. A separate section is devoted to new information about Neo-Assyrian eponym officials.

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Qcat: The Q Catalogue

Description: Provides a global registry of compositions rather than objects, supporting the creation of scores on Oracc.

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RIAo: Royal Inscriptions of Assyria online

Description: This project intends to present annotated editions of the entire corpus of Assyrian royal inscriptions, texts that were published in RIMA 1-3.

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RIBo: Royal Inscriptions of Babylonia online

Description: This project intends to present annotated editions of the entire corpus of Babylonian royal inscriptions from the Second Dynasty of Isin to the Neo-Babylonian Dynasty (1157-539 BC).

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Rim-Anum: The House of Prisoners

Description: Rīm-Anum, king of Uruk (ca. 1741–1739 BC) revolted against Samsuiluna of Babylon, son of Hammurapi, and enjoyed a short-lived independence. The archive edited in this project derives from the house of prisoners (bīt asiri) that kept the prisoners of war.

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RINAP: Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period

Description: Presents fully searchable, annotated editions of the royal inscriptions of Neo-Assyrian kings Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 BC), Shalmaneser V (726-722 BC), Sennacherib (704-681 BC), Esarhaddon (680-669 BC), Ashurbanipal (668-631 BC), Aššur-etel-ilāni (630-627 BC), and Sîn-šarra-iškun (626-612 BC).