Bernstein, Basil, "On the Classification and Framing of Educational Knowledge," pp. 47-69 in Michael F. D. Young, Knowledge and Control. London: Collier-Macmillan, 1971. Reprinted pp. 85-115 in Bernstein, Basil, Class, Codes and Control: Volume 3, Towards a Theory of Educational Transmissions, Revised Edition. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1977. *


Basil Bernstein


Describes the strengths and weaknesses of the integrated and collection codes that regulate knowledge in the curriculum.

Broad Topical Focus

Curriculum Development, Organization, Design

Source Discipline


Mode of Inquiry in the Study

Theoretical/Conceptual Inquiry, Critical Inquiry

Type of Study

Single Study

Narrow Topic

Ideology and School Knowledge, Content Selection and Organization, Curriculum Integration, Comparative Curriculum


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