Kliebard, Herbert M., "Vocational Education as Symbolic Action: Connecting Schooling with the Workplace," American Educational Research Journal , 27 (Spring, 1990), 9-26. Reprinted as "Curriculum Policy as Symbolic Action: Connecting Education with the Workplace," pp. 143-158 in Henning Haft and Stephan Hopmann, eds., Case Studies in Curriculum Administrative History. Philadelphia: The Falmer Press, 1990. Reprinted under original title, pp. 183-201 in Herbert M. Kliebard, Forging the American Curriculum: Essays in Curriculum History and Theory. New York: Routledge, 1992.*


Traces the politics of the vocational education movement in the early 1900s and the role of the professional educators and others in this movement; sees the work ethic at the core of the movement's symbolic action.

Broad Topical Focus

Curriculum Policies and Policy Making

Source Discipline


Mode of Inquiry in the Study

Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay, Historical Inquiry

Type of Study

Single Study

Narrow Topic

Curriculum History, Vocational vs. Liberal Education, Curriculum and Politics, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum


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