Proefriedt, William A., High Expectations: The Cultural Roots of Standards Reform in American Education. New York: Teachers College Press, 2010.


Argues against the policies and practices of educational reformers who demand testing, high individual achievement for all, and an economic model of curriculum for national competitiveness; traces threads both for and against these views throughout American educational history; gives a close reading and balanced interpretation of our leading educators over the last 250 years.

Broad Topical Focus

Curriculum Policies and Policy Making, Curriculum Visions and Philosophies, Curriculum Contexts and Societal Influences

Source Discipline


Mode of Inquiry in the Study

Historical Inquiry, Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism

Type of Study

Single Study

Narrow Topic

Curriculum History, Curriculum Aims and Objectives, Curriculum Standards and Testing, Philosophical Schools, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum


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