This works developed synchronous Raman microspectroscopy with laser beam induced current (LBIC) measurements to generate insights into structure-property correlations in finished solar cell modules. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful, non-destructive technique to examine phase and composition of materials where a laser beam excites characteristic vibrational modes of chemical bonds in a material. Conducting Raman spectroscopy under a microscope (i.e., Raman microspectroscopy) with confocal capabilities allows the chemical constituents to be mapped with high spatial resolution in the x, y and z directions. Simultaneously, the excitation laser from Raman can also generate photocarriers in a semiconductor. In a solar cell, these photocarriers generate a current termed as, LBIC which measures the device's ability to produce current upon light illumination. Thus, mapping the chemical signatures and electrical characteristics synchronously across the x, y and z directions can provide a deeper understanding and a multi-modal metrology platform for solar cell materials and devices. Simultaneous Raman microspectroscopy and LBIC measurement technique can be used to identify differences in quality between fresh and degraded solar cells through Raman microspectroscopy. The technique can be used to study material device correlation in solar cells with LBIC coupling. Coupled with LBIC, these measurements will provide deeper insights to cell quality and reliability. The proposed system is material agnostic and can be applied to a generalized photonic device. Effective in-line metrology in solar cell manufacturing holds the potential for reducing $/watt of solar cells by identifying process and materials excursions sufficiently early in the production process, thus improving manufacturing efficiency and reducing material loss. Effective metrology requires a characterization technique with adequate sensitivity, scale, and spatial resolution. While optical and electrical techniques are routinely used for in-line metrology and inspection, they do not generate the desired scientific understanding that correlate processes with materials and device performance. Thus, by applying the technique of combined Raman and LBIC measurements, understanding the interplay between process-material-device characteristics of a solar cell can be elucidated. Such knowledge is expected to positively impact the solar cell manufacturing industry.


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Graduation Date





Banerjee, Parag


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Materials Science and Engineering

Degree Program

Materials Science and Engineering




CFE0008980; DP0026313





Release Date

May 2023

Length of Campus-only Access

1 year

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)