This study applied the policy window theory through punctuated equilibrium and resource dependency theories to analyze the perception of nationwide fire service leaders and the impact that defunding law enforcement can have on the fire service in managing an active shooter mass casualty incident (ASMCI). As police reform remains the center of discussion throughout the nation, many community leaders have explored ways to re-appropriate police funding. This comes at a time when the paradigm of law enforcement and Fire/Emergency Medical Services (EMS) interdependency has become the standard response to ASMCIs as defined by the National Fire Protection Association 3000 Standard for an active shooter event. Using John Creswell's (2018) approach to mixed-methods design, a nationwide survey was sent to 1352 fire departments with open and closed-ended questions to measure their perception of ASMCI joint training and response impact. Survey data was collected, and through parametric testing, results were converged with qualitative data. This research explored the perception of the fire service in training and response to an ASMCI through the reliance on law enforcement and whether the fire service could evolve its response practices to address any delay in ASMCI response as outlined in NFPA 3000. The results reveal that fire officials regard training as a preparation tool to address the threat of an ASMCI and recognize that the community would expect the fire service to explore new models to evolve their role if required. This research area is emergent to policy discourse as the movement to defund law enforcement or funding reform can affect fire/EMS in managing an ASMCI emergency.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Community Innovation and Education
School of Public Administration
Public Affairs; Public Administration
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Rios, Anthony, "Defunding Law Enforcement: Fire Departments' Perspective on Implementing the National Fire Protection Association 3000 Standard When Preparing for an Active Shooter Mass Casualty Incident" (2022). Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-. 1080.
Restricted to the UCF community until May 2022; it will then be open access.