The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of the Drift protocol with and without utilizing an arm swing, and to establish if this is an effective assessment tool for single leg vertical jump. Thirteen male Division I Baseball pitchers (18-35 yrs.) completed four testing visits where a single leg hopping protocol was assessed. Visit one consisted of the consent process and familiarization with the Drift protocol. Visits two, three, and four involved two trials of the protocol, with and without an arm swing. The protocol consisted of five single leg hops on both the stride and trail legs. Jump variables contact time and flight time demonstrated both "moderate to good" relative reliability (ICC = 0.633 – 0.847) and acceptable absolute reliability (CV =3.6 - 14.1%). Compared to the trail leg, stride leg trials displayed greater relative and absolute reliability for contact time, flight time as well as jump power (ICC = 0.692 – 0.847; CV 3.6 - 14.1%). Further, arm swing trials demonstrated more acceptable relative and absolute reliability than trials without an arm swing, for jump contact time and flight time as well as jump height and jump power (ICC = 0.574 – 0.837; CV =3.6 - 9.3%). Significant main effects for arm swing were found for jump height, jump power, ground contact time, jump flight time, and the average area covered (p < 0.001). Significant main effects were also found in asymmetry variables regarding arm swing for the variables jump height, jump power and flight time (p < 0.05). The current data suggests that when evaluating single leg jump performance with the Drift protocol, the variables jump height, jump power, contact time, and flight time may be more reliable than the remaining average drift variables and total area covered in baseball pitchers.


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Graduation Date





Fukuda, David


Master of Science (M.S.)


College of Community Innovation and Education


School of Kinesiology & Physical Therapy

Degree Program



CFE0009149; DP0026745





Release Date

August 2023

Length of Campus-only Access

1 year

Access Status

Masters Thesis (Open Access)