Urbanization is bringing together various modes of transport, and with that, there are challenges to maintaining the safety of all road users, especially vulnerable road users (VRUs). Therefore, there is a need for street designs that encourages cooperation and resource sharing among road users. Shared space is a street design approach that softens the demarcation of vehicles and pedestrian traffic by reducing traffic rules, traffic signals, road markings, and regulations. Understanding the interactions and trajectory formations of various VRUs will facilitate the design of safer shared spaces. It will also lead to many applications, such as implementing reliable ad hoc communication networks. In line with this motivation, this dissertation develops a methodology for generating VRUs' trajectories that accounts for their walking behaviors and social interactions. The performed study leads to three traffic scenarios covering most pedestrian behavior and interactions traffic scenarios - group interactions, fixed obstacle interaction, and moving obstacle interaction. To implement the different scenarios in shared space facilities, we develop a receding horizon optimization-based trajectory planning algorithm capable of modeling pedestrian behavior and interactions. The generated trajectories are validated using two benchmark pedestrian datasets – DUT and TrajNet++. The validation is shown to yield low or near-zero Mean Euclidean Distance and Final Displacement Error values supporting the performance validity of the proposed generative algorithm. We further demonstrate the application of generated trajectories to predict the communication network topology formation, which leads to a stable network formation when integrated within ad hoc protocols. The developed pedestrian trajectory planning algorithm can be expanded as a simulation framework to provide a more realistic demonstration of how pedestrians use traffic facilities and interact with their environment. Moreover, the model's applicability is not limited to road traffic and shared spaces. It can find broader applications such as the emergency evacuation of buildings, large events, airports, and railway stations.


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Graduation Date





Zaki Hussein, Mohamed


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Civil, Environmental and Construction Engineering

Degree Program

Civil Engineering




CFE0009352; DP0027075





Release Date

December 2022

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)