This qualitative content analysis research study examined changes made to K-5 state mathematics standards across the United States from 2012 to 2022. This study aimed to answer the research question: In what ways, if any, do K-5 state mathematics standards differ from the CCSSM? This was accomplished through four additional sub questions which include: (1) In what ways, if any, do K-5 state mathematics student process and practice standards differ from the CCSSM? (2) In what ways, if any, do K-5 state mathematics standards content domains differ from the CCSSM? (3) In what ways, if any, do states describe how learning trajectories are addressed in K-5 state mathematics standards? and (4) In what ways, if any, is the relationship between procedural and conceptual learning outcomes represented in K-5 state mathematics standards? Data collection included state mathematics standards documents and any publicly available relevant supporting documents found on state department of education websites. Of the 21 standard revisions from 15 states considered for the study, revisions from six states were selected for coding. From the coding process, themes were developed regarding patterns in changes that occurred in individual states' standards. The most prominent and common themes of changes included the addition of standards (e.g., personal finance, estimation, patterns, statistics, and probability), the merging of domains, the lack of specific evidence to the inclusion of learning trajectories in the development of revisions, and movement away from a balanced approach to learning outcomes. There were no consistencies in changes across all states that were coded. The results from this study can be used to promote consistency for future considerations for states that are revising their standards or to urge the reconvening of a writing committee for a revision of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics.


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Graduation Date





Bush, Sarah


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Community Innovation and Education


School of Teacher Education

Degree Program

Education; Math Education




CFE0009598; DP0027621





Release Date

May 2024

Length of Campus-only Access

1 year

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Campus-only Access)

Restricted to the UCF community until May 2024; it will then be open access.