Reintegration for internally displaced returnees in Nigeria needs improvement due to the barrier returnees encounter when returning to their communities of origin. As a path to recovery following the unsettling experiences of generalized violence caused by Boko Haram terrorist attacks in Northeastern Nigeria, there is a need for best practices to mitigate challenges during reintegration for internally displaced returnees. With an estimated 2.5 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Northeastern Nigeria at the end of 2022, 1.98 million have returned to their prior residence, where they must cope and survive while attempting to reintegrate without effective and efficient support to ensure sustainability. Hence, this study aimed to explore the reintegration process among returnees while identifying the barriers that affect their reintegration process from a subjective standpoint in Michika local government area, Adamawa state. Data were systematically collected from 20 returnees using Ethnographic overt-participant observation and interviews qualitative research methods guided by Charmaz's Grounded Theory research design. Data collected were analyzed using constant comparison. Results revealed three themes that capture the process of reintegration and the barriers therein; 1)Returning, which highlights experiences leading to the IDP decision to return home and the basic needs required during this phase; 2) Readjusting, which points to the need for physical safety in avoidance of secondary displacement; the process of resettlement and adjustment to the sociocultural changes associated with the return and 3) Rebuilding that highlights individual, communal, and institutional roles and challenges with rebuilding the returnee's life and community. The study reveals how inequities or the absence of proper infrastructure to aid reintegration can hinder reintegration. The study recommends more community-based participatory action processes when developing and implementing interventions to support returnees during reintegration. It advocates that the 2012 National Policy on Internal Displacement must be held up to its purpose for enactment


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Graduation Date





Yalim, Asli


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Community Innovation and Education


School of Public Administration

Degree Program

Public Affairs; Social Work


CFE0009738; DP0027846





Release Date

August 2023

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)