As demands for memory-intensive applications continue to grow, the memory capacity of each computing node is expected to grow at a similar pace. In high-performance computing (HPC) systems, the memory capacity per compute node is decided upon the most demanding application that would likely run on such a system, and hence the average capacity per node in future HPC systems is expected to grow significantly. However, diverse applications run on HPC systems with different memory requirements and memory utilization can fluctuate widely from one application to another. Since memory modules are private for a corresponding computing node, a large percentage of the overall memory capacity will likely be underutilized, especially when there are many jobs with small memory footprints. Thus, as HPC systems are moving towards the exascale era, better utilization of memory is strongly desired. Moreover, as new memory technologies come on the market, the flexibility of upgrading memory and system updates becomes a major concern since memory modules are tightly coupled with the computing nodes. To address these issues, vendors are exploring fabric-attached memories (FAM) systems. In this type of system, resources are decoupled and are maintained independently. Such a design has driven technology providers to develop new protocols, such as cache-coherent interconnects and memory semantic fabrics, to connect various discrete resources and help users leverage advances in-memory technologies to satisfy growing memory and storage demands. Using these new protocols, FAM can be directly attached to a system interconnect and be easily integrated with a variety of processing elements (PEs). Moreover, systems that support FAM can be smoothly upgraded and allow multiple PEs to share the FAM memory pools using well-defined protocols. The sharing of FAM between PEs allows efficient data sharing, improves memory utilization, reduces cost by allowing flexible integration of different PEs and memory modules from several vendors, and makes it easier to upgrade the system. However, adopting FAM in HPC systems brings in new challenges. Since memory is disaggregated and is accessed through fabric networks, latency in accessing memory (efficiency) is a crucial concern. In addition, quality of service, security from neighbor nodes, coherency, and address translation overhead to access FAM are some of the problems that require rethinking for FAM systems. To this end, we study and discuss various challenges that need to be addressed in FAM systems. Firstly, we developed a simulating environment to mimic and analyze FAM systems. Further, we showcase our work in addressing the challenges to improve the performance and increase the feasibility of such systems; enforcing quality of service, providing page migration support, and enhancing security from malicious neighbor nodes.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Engineering and Computer Science
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Kommareddy, Vamsee Reddy, "Improving Performance and Flexibility of Fabric-Attached Memory Systems" (2021). Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-. 518.