This study evaluated the effectiveness of a summer intervention program for middle school Algebra 1 Honors students. The intervention program, Pre-Algebra 1 Mini-Camp, was offered for rising seventh grade students at a middle school prior to them entering Algebra 1 in the Fall semester. The literature review and analysis of data from school districts in Central Florida showed that the increase in middle grade students enrollment in Algebra 1 has coincided with a decrease in the passing rate among those students on the Florida Algebra 1 End of Course exam and the course. The intervention program and this study were premised on the assumption that the decreased pass rate was the result of these students missing critical mathematics skills and concepts from the seventh grade curriculum. This study describes a design framework and other details of the intervention program. The evaluation study used a quasi-experimental design, comparing the 18 students who took part in the intervention with a comparison group composed of 21 other seventh grade students taking Algebra 1 Honors from the same school district. The matching sample was created using case-control matching based on student demographic data and sixth grade standardized test scores. Dependent variables were school district-administered, standardized test scores and grades collected during the first and second quarters of the school year. The main effect was tested using a within-between repeated measures MANOVA. Data analysis revealed that participants in the intervention group had slightly better performance on both standardized tests and grades versus the comparison sample (partial η2 = .06). The intervention groups also showed marginally better performance over time (partial η2 = .02). However, neither the between-group difference (F(2,32) = 1.04, p = .06) nor the greater improvement of the intervention group over time (F(2, 32) = 80.28, p = .83) were statistically significant. These findings of statistically non-significant differences must be interpreted cautiously due to the low power of the research design (Power = .22, between groups; Power = .10, between groups x time). A larger sample would be needed to achieve sufficient power in the research design. This study added to a small pool of research on seventh grade students enrolled in algebra courses. It briefly described some of the gaps in mathematical concepts and skills that likely led to students struggling for success in algebra. Implications of this study include revisiting policies supporting the enrollment of middle grade students in Algebra 1 Honors. This study also presents the design of a summer intervention program that may support student success in an algebra course and suggestions for creating a longer program which would provide more opportunity to support to the students' pre-algebra concepts, skills and practices.


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Graduation Date





Boote, David


Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


College of Community Innovation and Education


Learning Sciences and Educational Research

Degree Program

Curriculum and Instruction




CFE0007960; DP0023101





Release Date

May 2020

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)