The Multi Resolution Modeling (MRM) is a modeling technology that creates a model that expresses the same phenomenon with more than two different resolutions. The MRM study began in the military field where modeling and simulation (M&S) was most actively developed and was recognized as an important area in the integrated system of Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) simulations. Because numerous models of the various resolutions were already built based on the characteristics and training purposes of each weapon system, and the interoperability of these models was a primary task in the M&S community. However, only recommended V&V process guidelines for developing a distributed simulation system are provided, but there was no mention of specific methods or algorithms for verification and validation (V&V) of the MRM implementation. This study proposes a new framework for the V&V of the MRM federation. It is designed to address issues that may arise from the difference in the resolution of each model and evaluate the reliability of the MRM federation by the V&V process. The military expert team has been organized to support the developing process. Based on the developed framework, two case studies were conducted using virtual and constructive simulations. The KnowBook and VR-Forces, which are the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) simulations, have been utilized for building the MRM federation. The virtual simulation was controlled by active Air Force pilots who are members of the military expert team. Two federations have been constructed for two case studies and evaluated following the process of the developed V&V framework. Simulations of 70 sorties were performed in case study 1 and 77 sorties in case study 2. For data analysis, the federation execution screen was recorded in video and the data was extracted using program code written in Python. R language was used to analyze the relationship between connected objects in each simulation and OriginPro was utilized to plot the 3D or 2D graph for collected data. As a result, the interworking of virtual and constructive simulation has been verified as an effective federation for the pilot training system. The developed V&V framework contributes to identifying the core parts that need to be verified in the MRM federation. This paper also discusses the direction in which the MRM should move forward as well as limitations and future research of this study.


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Graduation Date





Lee, Gene


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Industrial Engineering and Management Systems

Degree Program

Industrial Engineering









Release Date

August 2024

Length of Campus-only Access

3 years

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Campus-only Access)