This post hoc quantitative research used a causal-comparative design to explore the relationship between tiered interventions as part of an MTSS intervention and student achievement. Data from the Florida Standards Assessment for English Language Arts (FSA ELA) and mathematics (FSA Mathematics) from 2018 and 2019 formed the basis of the study; student demographic data also identified each student's highest level of reading, mathematics, and behavior interventions during the 2018-2019 school year. Students who received interventions were coded into a separate higher tier. Percentile change was calculated and analyzed using an ANOVA to determine how percentile change differed by intervention tier. In addition, a factorial ANOVA was used to determine whether student demographic characteristics moderated any intervention effects. Results were reported for FSA ELA percentile change for reading, mathematics, and behavior interventions and FSA Mathematics percentile change for each intervention category. Results of the analysis were mixed. Students in Tier I for reading and mathematics showed positive changes in percentile; there was no evidence that Tier II and Tier II students for reading and mathematics interventions improved faster than students in Tier I. The results for Tier IV, those students receiving ESE services, revealed positive changes greater in reading that were greater than Tier II and Tier III. In addition, mathematics change in percentile for students receiving Tier IV ESE services was significantly positive and showed promise for reducing the achievement gap. Race and economically disadvantaged status did not moderate intervention effects. However, English language learner status and gender did moderate intervention effects. This research extended other large-scale MTSS research by including data on students' reported intervention level. However, data regarding intervention program, duration, and fidelity were not collected. Lack of specific data about intervention implementation limited conclusions that could be drawn; future researchers should consider collecting intervention data to understand better when, where, and for whom interventions are most impactful. Further suggestions for research, implications for policy and practice are discussed.


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Graduation Date





Eadens, Daniel


Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


College of Community Innovation and Education


Educational Leadership and Higher Education

Degree Program

Educational Leadership; Executive









Release Date

August 2021

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)