Three-dimensional (3D) integration technologies, including interposer-based integration, are among the most promising solutions to meet the increased demand for high performance computing, high chip density, and small form factor. Key technologies that enable 3D integration include through-substrate vias and solder joints. Glass is considered as a promising substrate material for interposer-based 3D integration technology especially in radio frequency applications because of glass's high resistivity, low dielectric constant, low electrical loss, and the adjustable coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). However, during fabrication or service, through-glass vias can suffer from interface delamination and substrate cracking. The problem of copper protrusion is also detrimental to the package performance and causes serious reliability problems for the integrity of signal layers. On the other hand, the Controlled Collapse Chip Connections (C4-bumps) and micro-bump solder joints, which are important for chip-to-substrate and chip-to-chip connections, can experience cyclic or interrupted stress conditions when used for applications such as in data centers and networking servers. Therefore, it is important to test solder joints under near-application conditions, which is currently lacking. In this work, finite element analysis and experimental work were combined to examine these reliability aspects in through-glass vias and solder joints. For through-glass vias, stresses and potential locations for cracking or delamination were studied using energy release rate to evaluate the interface reliability and the substrate cracking susceptibility. In addition, experimental tests are used to evaluate the reliability problems associated with copper protrusion in TGVs. Material characterization such as nanoindentation and microcompression are used to evaluate the material properties of TGVs. For the solder joints, the microstructural evolution and crack formation were studied for micro-bumps and C4 bumps that were subjected to three unique testing conditions. The role of intermetallic formation and solder volume was discussed. The results from this work provide a new prospective and offer potential design guidelines on the reliability of these important structures for 3D integration


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Graduation Date





Jiang, Tengfei


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Materials Science and Engineering

Degree Program

Materials Science and Engineering









Release Date


Length of Campus-only Access

1 year

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)