Passive devices and amplifiers for space division multiplexing are key components for future deployment of this technology and for the development of new applications exploring the spatial diversity of light. Some important devices include photonic lantern (PL) mode multiplexers supporting several modes, fan-in/fan-out (FIFO) devices for multicore fibers (MCFs), and multimode amplifiers capable of amplifying several modes with low differential modal gain penalty. All these components are required to overcome the capacity limit of single mode fiber (SMF) communication systems, driven by the growing data capacity demand. In this dissertation I propose and develop different passive components and amplifiers for space division multiplexing technologies, including PL mode multiplexers with low insertion loss and low mode dependent loss to excite different number of modes into few mode fibers (FMFs). I demonstrate a PL with a graded index core that better matches the mode profiles of a graded index FMF supporting six spatial modes with mode dependent loss (MDL) ranging from 2- to 3-dB over the entire C-band. Multicore fibers can alleviate the capacity limit of single mode fibers by placing multiple single mode cores within the same fiber cladding. However, interfacing single mode fibers to MCFs can be challenging due to physical limitations, in this dissertation I develop and fabricate different types of FIFO devices to couple light into MCFs with high efficiency and having up to 19 cores. I demonstrate high coupling efficiency with insertion loss below 0.5 dB per FIFO into a 4-core MCF and below 1 dB for a 19-core MCF. Multimode erbium doped fiber (EDF) amplifiers are required to amplify each mode within the few mode transmission fiber, the main challenge is to provide an amplifier with low differential modal gain, in this dissertation I present the first coupled-core amplifier concept compatible with FMFs. A 6-core coupled-core EDF can be spliced with low insertion and low MDL to a FMF supporting 6 spatial modes via a slight taper transition. The amplifier introduces 1.8 MDL with gain variation over the entire C-band below 1-dB.


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Graduation Date





Amezcua Correa, Rodrigo


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Optics and Photonics


Optics and Photonics

Degree Program

Optics and Photonics









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Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)