GPU, Security, TEE, Homomorphic Encryption, Enclave, Encryption


Cloud computing increasingly handles confidential data, like private inference and query databases. Two strategies are used for secure computation: (1) employing CPU Trusted Execution Environments (TEEs) like AMD SEV, Intel SGX, or ARM TrustZone, and (2) utilizing emerging cryptographic methods like Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) with libraries such as HElib, Microsoft SEAL, and PALISADE. To enhance computation, GPUs are often employed. However, using GPUs to accelerate secure computation introduces challenges addressed in three works.

In the first work, we tackle GPU acceleration for secure computation with CPU TEEs. While TEEs perform computations on confidential data, extending their capabilities to GPUs is essential for leveraging their power. Existing approaches assume co-designed CPU-GPU setups, but we contend that co-designing CPU and GPU is difficult to achieve and requires early coordination between CPU and GPU manufacturers. To address this, we propose software-based memory encryption for CPU-GPU TEE co-design via the software layer. Yet, this introduces issues due to AES's 128-bit granularity. We present optimizations to mitigate these problems, resulting in execution time overheads of 1.1\% and 56\% for regular and irregular applications.

In the second work, we focus on GPU acceleration for the CPU FHE library HElib, particularly for comparison operations on encrypted data. These operations are vital in Machine Learning, Image Processing, and Private Database Queries, yet their acceleration is often overlooked. We extend HElib to harness GPU acceleration for its resource-intensive components like BluesteinNTT, BluesteinFFT, and Element-wise Operations. Addressing memory separation, dynamic allocation, and parallelization challenges, we employ several optimizations to address these challenges. With all optimizations and hybrid CPU-GPU parallelism, we achieve a 11.1$\times$ average speedup over the state-of-the-art CPU FHE library.

In our latest work, we concentrate on minimizing the ciphertext size by leveraging insights from algorithms, data access patterns, and application requirements to reduce the operational footprint of an FHE application, particularly targeting Neural Network inference tasks. Through the implementation of all three levels of ciphertext compression (precision reduction in comparisons, optimization of access patterns, and adjustments in data layout), we achieve a remarkable 5.6$\times$ speedup compared to the state-of-the-art GPU implementation in 100x\cite{100x}. Overcoming these challenges is crucial for achieving significant GPU-driven performance improvements. This dissertation provides solutions to these hurdles, aiming to facilitate GPU-based acceleration of confidential data computation.

Completion Date




Committee Chair

Solihin, Yan


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Computer Science

Degree Program

Computer Science






In copyright

Release Date

May 2024

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)

Campus Location

Orlando (Main) Campus

Accessibility Status

Meets minimum standards for ETDs/HUTs