Virtual reality displays; Augmented reality displays; Field sequential color LCD; Micro-OLED; LCoS microdisplay.


The immersive virtual reality (VR) and the optical see-through augmented reality (AR) are expected to revolutionize human lives in work, education, entertainment, healthcare, spatial computing, and digital twins, just to name a few. Next-generation VR/AR devices should exhibit a wide field-of-view (FoV), crisp image without screen-door effect, high dynamic range, compact form factor and lightweight, and low power consumption. Such demanding requirements pose a significant challenge to traditional direct-view display panels. To address these technical challenges, novel approaches need to be proposed. This dissertation is devoted to developing next-generation high-performance display light engines toward high resolution density, high optical efficiency, wide color gamut, and small form factor. These emerging solutions will fuel the growth and accelerate the widespread applications of VR/AR devices.

In Chapter 2, we propose practical measurement methods to characterize the halo artifacts of miniature light-emitting diode (mini-LED) backlit liquid crystal displays (LCDs). After measuring and characterizing a high dynamic range (HDR) light engine, we propose and develop field sequential color (FSC) LCDs for high-end virtual reality (VR) devices in Chapter 3. Such an FSC LCD can triple the resolution density and optical efficiency via eliminating color filters. To further mitigate the color breakup (CBU), we also propose to combine mini-LEDs with FSC LCDs to enable progressive emission and achieve a higher frame rate (~ 600 Hz). To quantitatively compare the CBUs corresponding to simultaneous emission, progressive emission, and stencil algorithm, we adopt the CIEDE2000 color difference as a metric. Quantitative simulation results of the CBU indicate that a 600-Hz subframe rate can help mitigate the CBU dramatically.

Micro organic light-emitting diode (micro-OLED) exhibiting high-resolution density and high contrast ratio is another type of display for high-end VR devices. More specifically, white micro-OLED is currently employed because it helps ease the manufacturing difficulty. In Chapter 4, we optimize the layer thicknesses to achieve a maximum efficiency while keeping a decent color gamut. We also push the limit of color gamut toward ~ 95% Rec. 2020. Lastly, liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCoS) offers great potential for achieving high-efficiency and high-resolution waveguide-based AR displays. In Chapter 5, several strategies are proposed and developed to improve the performance of LCoS microdisplays and enable a small pixel size. In Chapter 6, we briefly summarize our major accomplishments.

Completion Date




Committee Chair

Wu, Shin-Tson


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Optics and Photonics






In copyright

Release Date

May 2024

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)

Campus Location

Orlando (Main) Campus

Accessibility Status

Meets minimum standards for ETDs/HUTs