secondary education, online learning, learning analytics


Online learning provides secondary students with the flexibility to meet learning goals at a time, place, and pace that meets their needs. In order to be successful in online courses, students must exhibit strong levels of self-regulated learning (SRL), including time management, goal setting, and resilience. Understanding the SRL behaviors of secondary online students can help course designers, instructors, and administrators design effective learning environments and provide targeted support to help students be successful in online learning environments. This three-manuscript dissertation analyzes the course pacing behaviors of secondary students enrolled in online courses to attain insight on their self-regulated behaviors. As a proxy for understanding online self-regulated behaviors, temporal variables were examined including the average length of an online study session, the amount of time between study sessions, the average number of study session sand the overall number of study sessions for each participant. The first study investigated the relationships between student demographics and temporal behaviors in relation to their effect on the depth of student understanding on the course midterm exam. The second study explores trends in online temporal behaviors, including the consistency and frequency of engagement in the course, and how these behaviors change over time in relation to student demographics. The final article utilizes student demographics and temporal behaviors to study their effect on academic achievement, as measured by their performance on the Advanced Placement exam. Findings from these studies indicate that online pacing behavior is related to student demographics and previous academic experience while also providing insight into how these variables affect achievement. By understanding the temporal behaviors of online secondary students, personalized support can be provided to strengthen student time management and engagement to promote academic achievement.

Completion Date




Committee Chair

Campbell, Laurie


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Community Innovation and Education


School of Teacher Education

Degree Program

Instructional Design and Technology









In copyright

Release Date

May 2027

Length of Campus-only Access

3 years

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Campus-only Access)

Campus Location

Orlando (Main) Campus

Accessibility Status

Meets minimum standards for ETDs/HUTs

Restricted to the UCF community until May 2027; it will then be open access.