Diagnostic Analysis Of Silicon Photovoltaic Modules After 20-Year Field Exposure

Secondary Author(s)

King, David; Hosking, F; Kratochvil, J; Johnson, R; Dhere, Neelkanth; Pandit, Mandar


PV Modules


The objective of this study was to investigate the technology used by Spectrolab Inc. to manufacture photovoltaic modules that have provided twenty years of reliable service at Natural Bridges National Monument in southeastern Utah. A field survey, system performance tests, and a series of module and materials tests have confirmed the durability of the modules in the array. The combination of manufacturing processes, materials, and quality controls used by Spectrolab resulted in modules that have maintained a performance level close to the original specifications for twenty years. Specific contributors to the durability of the modules included polyvinyl-butyral (PVB) encapsulant, expanded metal interconnects, silicon oxide anti-reflective coating, and excellent solder/substrate solderability

Date Published


Local Subjects

PV Modules


FSEC Energy Research Center® Collection

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