Background: According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 1.6 to 3.8 million Americans suffer a sports related concussion each year. Concussion is defined as a transient alteration of the brain structure caused by a direct or indirect force. During the last decade, a vast amount of clinical research on the long term effects of repetitive head trauma has occurred, especially on the subject of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), depression and dementia. Objective: The purpose of this literature review is to examine the literature pertaining to multiple concussion and the long-term effects of multiple concussion such as neurodegenerative diseases and psychological. Methods: A literature review was conducted using an electronic search of the following databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SportDiscus. The key search terms included were concussion, "sport concussion" and "sports concussion". One of the above three terms needed to be in conjunction with one of the following key search terms: depression, dementia, "mild cognitive impairment", "chronic traumatic encephalopathy" (CTE), or "psychological disorder". Additional inclusion criteria also included studies that targeted the adult athlete population who had sustained more than one concussion. Studies only were included if they were peer-reviewed, in the English language, and were published after 1990. To be included in the review, the study must have examined the long term effects of repetitive concussion. Results: The research completed to date suggests there is a strong correlation between the number of concussions an athlete suffers and the long-term ramifications of neurodegenerative and psychological disorders. However, more research is needed.
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Bachelor of Science (B.S.)
College of Health and Public Affairs
Dissertations, Academic -- Health and Public Affairs;Health and Public Affairs -- Dissertations, Academic
Length of Campus-only Access
Honors in the Major Thesis
Rivera, Vivian, "Examination of the relationship between sport concussion and long term neurodegenerative and psychological disorders: a literature review" (2013). HIM 1990-2015. 1456.