PCA; PLS; Scale development; Tourism; Transformation; Transformative experience


Transformative experience has been the buzzword in recent years. Tourism and hospitality experiences in natural, historical, cultural, and authentic spaces are some of them. However, to this date, specific dimensions of transformation or its process have not been empirically identified. This study reviewed the literature on transformation, used open-ended questions to collect free-elicited responses on the meanings of transformation, collected expert opinion, and developed a 101-item scale reflecting different dimensions and the steps of the transformation process. The scale was validated with a sequential scale validation procedure; Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) were used to test the psychometric properties of the scale and model the constructs of the transformation process. A measurable definition of the transformation process is provided along with the tested model. A comprehensive model with antecedents, outcomes, and moderators of transformation is also suggested to further transformation research.

Publication Date


Original Citation

Tasci, A. D. A., & Godovykh, M. (2021). An empirical modeling of transformation process through trip experiences. Tourism Management, 86, N.PAG.

Document Type




Source Title

Tourism Management



Publication Version



Rosen College of Hospitality Management


Rosen College of Hospitality Management



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