Live Streaming: Pushing Limits of Hospitality and Tourism Online Experiences


Cocreation; Customer engagement; IT affordance; Live streaming


Purpose: This paper aims to propose a hospitality and tourism live-streaming (HTLS) experience cocreation model based on a critical reflection of extant literature to capture the governing structure of HTLS experiences and reveal the mechanisms under which HTLS works.

Design/methodology/approach: To ensure that critical reflections and insights produced by this study are meaningful and contribute to the body of knowledge and practices, the authors have adopted a robust methodology comprising systematic searching, evaluating and conceptualizing.

Findings: A conceptual model is developed around three critical and intimately related domains of HTLS experiences: the governing framework of HTLS content cocreation based on stakeholder theory; the structural relationships between HTLS content, IT affordance and HTLS experiences; and the conceptual structure of HTLS experiences based on personal engagement theory.

Practical implications: Several practical implications follow from this study. First, it is critical to understand that both HTLS content and experience are affected by multiple stakeholders. Second, stakeholder interactions and cocreation determine consumer experiences. Third, practitioners should take advantage of the understanding of HTLS stakeholder attributes. Fourth, attention should be paid to IT affordance. And lastly, a tiered structure appears to govern consumer engagement in HTLS.

Originality/value: Live-streaming studies are still in their infancy stage in hospitality and tourism, with only nine papers related to HTLS published in peer-reviewed journals until May 2022. This study reviewed a carefully selected collection of 15 live-streaming-related articles and proposed a conceptual HTLS experience cocreation model. Moreover, the existing studies in live streaming are synthesized, with important themes identified, as well as practical and theoretical trends explored.

Publication Date


Original Citation

Hua, N., Li, B., & Zhang, T. (2023). Live streaming: pushing limits of hospitality and tourism online experiences. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 35(10), 3703–3717.

Document Type




Source Title

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management






Rosen College of Hospitality Management


Rosen College of Hospitality Management

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