Keywords

Acetic acid, Aluminum sulfate, Citric acid, Coagulation, Drinking water -- Purification, Ferric chloride, Ultrafiltration, Water -- Purification -- Filtration

Abstract

Integrating ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in lieu of traditional media filters within conventional surface water coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation processes is growing in popularity. UF systems are able to produce low turbidity filtered water that meets newer drinking water standards. For typical drinking water applications, UF membranes require periodic chemically enhanced backwashes (CEBs) to maintain production; and citric acid is a common chemical used for this purpose. Problems may arise when the backwash recycle stream from a citric acid CEB is blended with raw water entering the coagulation basin, a common practice for conventional surface water plants. Citric acid is a chelating agent capable of forming complexes that interfere with alum or ferric chloride coagulation. Interference with coagulation negatively affects settled water quality. Acetic acid was investigated as a potential substitute for citric acid in CEB applications. A jar testing study was conducted to compare the impacts of both citric acid and acetic acid on the effectiveness of aluminum sulfate (alum) and ferric chloride coagulants. Citric acid was found to adversely affect coagulation at lower acid to coagulant (A/C) molar ratios than acetic acid, and a coagulation interference threshold was identified for both acids based on settled water turbidity goals recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Pilot testing was conducted to assess the viability of acetic acid as a UF CEB chemical. Acetic acid CEBs maintained pilot performance in combination with sodium hypochlorite CEBs for filtering a raw California surface water. It is believed that this is the first ultrafiltration membrane process application of acetic acid CEBs for municipal potable water production in the United States.

Notes

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Graduation Date

2011

Semester

Spring

Advisor

Duranceau, Steven J.

Degree

Master of Science (M.S.)

College

College of Engineering and Computer Science

Department

Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering

Format

application/pdf

Identifier

CFE0003723

URL

http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/etd/CFE0003723

Language

English

Length of Campus-only Access

None

Access Status

Masters Thesis (Open Access)

Subjects

Dissertations, Academic -- Engineering and Computer Science, Engineering and Computer Science -- Dissertations, Academic

Included in

Engineering Commons

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