male body image, assessment, development, validation, scale development
Despite evidence suggesting that appearance dissatisfaction among men is on the rise, a void in appropriate forms of body image assessment for males remains. The current study reviews the literature on male body image, identifying the shortcomings and limitations of prior research, and introduces a psychometrically sound, male-specific body image assessment. An initial item-generation study was used to poll 253 males to inquire about their concerns, emotions, behaviors, and related body image topics to be sorted and synthesized into items for scale inclusion. The newly developed Appearance Inventory for Men (AIM) was then administered to 330 males and submitted to exploratory factor analyses, revealing a relatively stable three-factor structure. Weight-Focus (WF), Muscle Focus (MF), and Appearance Motivation (AM) factors emerged, all with good internal consistency and convergent, discriminant, and construct validity. Two additional psychometrically sound subscales were included in the final AIM that assess body area satisfaction for men (Key Attributes of Muscularity; KAM) and the common Strategies for Appearance Management (SAM). Future research and clinical implications are discussed, as are the directions for continued validation of this unique, yet much needed male-specific body image assessment tool.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Arts and Sciences
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Agliata, Daniel, "Assessing Male Body Image: Development And Validation Of The Appearance Inventory For Men (aim)" (2005). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 421.